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FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE AND ITS RELATION TO PESTALOZZI'S PEDAGOGIC INTENTIONS IN ‘LIENHARD UND GERTRUD’
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Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Returning user. Difficulties with his fellow teachers forced him to close this school in Returning to Neuhof, he wrote autobiographical accounts in which he explained his failure in terms of "lack of foresight and inability to govern," shortcomings that are in sharp contrast to his fervent love for and devotion to mankind.
His ideas, however, had profound and lasting influence. In the contemplative review of his life, Die Abendstunde eines Einsiedlers , he paints an ideal picture of a man who is at peace because he has worked for the development of men's inner powers through faith in God, a healthy family life, and an individual, vocational, and professional education adapted to the good of the community. To Pestalozzi elementary education was the natural right of every child, who should be afforded the opportunity to develop his physical, moral, and intellectual powers.
He was convinced that every child, if properly trained, could be prepared to earn a living while developing his intelligence and moral nature. Noting carefully the results of his educational experiments, Pestalozzi declared: "There unfolded itself gradually in my mind the idea of an ABC of observation to which I now attach great importance, and in the working out of which the whole scheme of a general method of instruction in all its scope appeared, though still obscure, before my eyes.
There was oral discussion based on observation of the object of the lesson, a separation of the essential from the accidental and eventually the formulation of a definition. The procedure was chiefly oral: textbooks were not used, the pupil was active throughout the process, and the teacher instructed orally.
This required of the teacher careful organization, resulting from proper preparation of the materials for each lesson, and skill in the art of questioning. Influenced by J. The Neuhof experiment — 80 was intended to further this idea. Here the boys studied farming, the girls were taught sewing and housekeeping, and both learned spinning and weaving in a good home environment.
Later in Stanz, — , as he himself related: "I tried to connect study with manual labor, the school with the workshop, and make one thing of them. Fellenberg, a man of means, established an institute at Hofwyl that emphasized practical training in agriculture and industrial arts.
Pestalozzi did not include history and literature in his program because they were not readily adaptable to object teaching and because of his prejudice against books, which may have been influenced by Rousseau's Emile. To Pestalozzi the principal center for the education of children was a well-regulated home, the center of love and cooperation.
This spirit should also permeate the atmosphere of the classroom, where a "thinking love" should become the basis of the relationship between teacher and pupil. The school, he maintained, should be the focal point of activity wherein the individuality of the child would be regarded as sacred and instruction would be in harmony with his nature and inborn powers.
He believed strongly in the development of head, heart, and hand in surroundings resembling those of a good Christian home. Fellenberg's application of Pestalozzian principles were used effectively in the rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents in Germany and England. The manual labor movement in American education stemmed from the same source as did, also, the changes brought about in reform schools, e.
The spirit and methods of the Swiss reformer later became the foundation of the Prussian system of education whose leaders had studied under him at Burgdorf and Yverdon. Visitors to European schools disseminated their views upon their return through various educational journals, e. Pestalozzian methods came to be emphasized in American teacher's institutes. Edward A. Sheldon — 97 , Superintendent of Schools.
A teachers training school developed from the in-service training given the teachers, and in gave rise to the Oswego state normal school whose influence spread throughout the state and the Middle West in what came to be known as the "Oswego Movement. Pestalozzi was essentially a reformer interested in the social regeneration of the poor, which he thought could best be effected through instruction. Home Lienhard und Gertrud German Edition.
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