A Friend in Need is arguably one of the most popular and thereby most recognizable paintings ever.
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Despite this, he had a talent for creating playfully surreal, humorous illustrations and started selling his drawings to various magazines by when he was just 20 years old. During adulthood, Coolidge tried his hand at many different professions, including sign painting, banking, pharmacy, and newspaper publishing. It is unknown where Coolidge got his idea for his first poker dogs painting Poker Game , The piece series includes depictions of groups of dogs in all sorts of humanistic scenarios, including a football game , a road trip , and even a jester performing for a royal couple.
The artworks were originally used for promotional posters, calendars, and prints to advertise cigars. More than a funny series, Dogs Playing Poker also contains a brief, yet dramatic narrative, told through a pair of the paintings. The title comes from the fact that the bulldog in the foreground is seen secretly slipping an ace to his partner, while his competitors give side-glances around the table. Natural gas generates electricity more efficiently than coal, with half the greenhouse gas emissions, fewer acid rain precursors and virtually free of many other troubling pollutants like mercury and particulates.
Natural gas also burns cleaner than oil. Billionaire oilman T. Boone Pickens says the United States ought to be producing vehicles to take advantage of domestic shale gas and break its foreign oil dependence. Gas companies in Pennsylvania also frame their role as a pivotal one in the big U. Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan warned Congress in that the nation would need to begin to import substantial amounts of the key fuel from overseas.
The U.S. Is Overflowing With Natural Gas. Not Everyone Can Get It.
This raised the specter of foreign gas dependence that mirrored long-standing U. In Europe, which imports a quarter of its gas by pipeline from Russia, gas disruptions pose a security problem. But precisely at the moment Greenspan was delivering his grim forecast for the United States, energy industry iconoclasts in Texas were proving definitively that combining horizontal drilling and large-volume hydraulic fracturing could unlock a huge rush of gas from shale.
Although the Keystone State was thought to have tapped out its big-time energy supplies long ago, Pennsylvania was key to the rise of oil and coal that fueled U. About miles south of the storied Drake Well, in , Range drilled the first gas well into the shale on leased farmland in Mount Pleasant Township. After several years of experimentation, there were nearly 20 Marcellus wells in Pennsylvania in , nearly were drilled in , and nearly last year.
That puts producers on track to drill somewhat less than the 1, wells they had aimed to drill in Pennsylvania this year, a slowdown certainly due to tough economic factors roiling the industry.
Marcellus A. Upshaw
To remind them, there are million tons of abandoned waste coal in piles that mar about 8, acres across the state. The industry is battling to improve its image, recently hiring Tom Ridge, a former Republican governor of Pennsylvania and director of U.
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Many landowners who own the mineral rights to their property are being approached with offers to lease their land. The size of the signing bonuses that have been paid in transactions between informed buyers and informed sellers is directly related to two factors: 1 the level of uncertainty in the mind of the buyer, and 2 the number of other buyers competing to make the purchase. These factors have changed significantly in a very short time. As recently as , there was very little interest in leasing properties for Marcellus Shale gas production.
The Marcellus was not considered to be an important gas resource, and a technology for tapping it had not been demonstrated. At that time the level of uncertainty in the minds of the buyers was very high, and the signing bonuses were a few dollars per acre.
Eurytides marcellus thumbnails
In late signing bonuses of a few hundred dollars per acre were common. Then, as the technology was demonstrated and publicized, signing bonuses began to rise rapidly. If the results of current and future drilling activity do not match the expectations of companies paying for leases, the amounts that they are willing to pay could drop rapidly.
Although signing bonuses generate an enormous amount of interest because they are guaranteed income, royalties can be significantly higher. A royalty is a share of a well's income. The customary royalty rate is Higher royalty rates are sometimes paid by aggressive buyers for highly desirable properties. The royalties paid to eligible property owners from a well yielding over one million cubic feet of natural gas per day can be hundreds of thousands of dollars per year.
Unfortunately, production levels in most wells fall rapidly, yielding much lower amounts year after year. If the Marcellus Shale holds up to the optimistic expectations of some natural gas experts, Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, and West Virginia could temporarily have an enormous boost in income that might be sustained for a few decades.
Around Marcellus by Leslie Church Kraus
Number of Marcellus wells: This graph shows the number of unconventional wells drilled in Pennsylvania between and Between and , unconventional wells were only targeting the Marcellus Shale. Starting in , some wells began targeting the Utica Shale in western Pennsylvania. Data in this chart was obtained from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. Several companies are actively drilling or leasing Marcellus Shale properties.
The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection reports that the number of drilled wells in the Marcellus Shale has been increasing rapidly.
In only 27 Marcellus Shale wells were drilled in the state; however, in the number of wells drilled had risen to Many of these wells will yield millions of cubic feet of natural gas per day in their first year. However, the yield of individual wells usually falls rapidly over the next few years.
The long-term yield of Marcellus Shale wells is uncertain. Some in the industry believe that they will produce lower but profitable quantities of gas for decades. It is also possible that many wells will be refractured in the future with improved technologies. The same drilling pad might be reused in the future to drill multiple horizontal wells in different directions.
Marcellus Shale drilling pads have many future options. Marcellus Shale pipeline: At present, the natural gas pipeline capacity in the Marcellus Shale region is inadequate to carry the volume of gas that will be produced. Several major pipelines are needed to transport millions of cubic feet of gas per day to high-population markets. In addition, thousands of miles of natural gas gathering systems must be built to connect individual wells to the major pipelines.
Hundreds of thousands of acres above the Marcellus Shale have been leased with the intent of drilling wells for natural gas. However, most of the leased properties are not adjacent to a natural gas pipeline.
The total natural gas pipeline capacity currently available is a tiny fraction of what will be needed. Several new pipelines must be built to transport millions of cubic feet of natural gas per day to major markets. Many property owners will be asked to sign right-of-way agreements that will allow natural gas pipelines and gathering systems to be built across their land.
If the property owner is not associated with the gas production, there could be compensation for granting the right-of-way. Although the Marcellus Shale is the current unconventional shale drilling target in Pennsylvania, another rock unit with enormous potential is a few thousand feet below the Marcellus. The Utica Shale is thicker than the Marcellus, more geographically extensive and has already shown that it can be of commercial value. A generalized cross-section showing the relative positions of the Marcellus Shale and the Utica Shale is shown on this page.
When the yield of Marcellus Shale wells starts to decline, new wells might be drilled down to the Utica to continue a stream of natural gas production. Drilling for the Utica will be more expensive because of the greater depth; however, the infrastructure of drill pads, right-of-ways, pipelines, permit data and other investments will reduce development costs for Utica Shale wells. The events described above are not unique to the northeastern United States or the Marcellus Shale.
The horizontal drilling and hydrofracing technologies were perfected for shale reservoirs a few years ago in the Barnett Shale of Texas.
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